What You Need To Know About Diabetes

DIABETES

diabetes

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or make enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas (an organ located near the stomach) that helps glucose get into the cells of our body. Insulin is needed to change sugar, starches and other foods into energy that we need for daily life.  When you have diabetes not enough insulin is being produced and the sugar levels in your blood can get too high.  This is why many people refer to Diabetes as “sugar”.  Diabetes can cause serious health problems including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and amputations.

There are three types of Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational

Type 1 Diabetes:  Your body does not produce insulin.  This is a problem because you need insulin to take the sugar (glucose) from the foods you eat and turn it into energy for your body. Without insulin, your body cannot control blood sugar levels.

Type 2 Diabetes: Your body’s does not make enough or use insulin well. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.

Gestational: Women get this kind of diabetes when they are pregnant. Most of the time, it goes away after the baby is born. But even if it goes away, these women and their children have a greater chance of getting diabetes later in life.

Normal Blood Glucose (sugar) levels for someone with Diabetes should be:

  • Before meals: 80 mg/dl to 130 mg/dl
  • Two hours after eating: Below 180 mg/dl

Diabetes early symptoms.jpg

plan

  • Treatment plan Diabetes
  • Monitor glucose levels as prescribed by your health provider
  • Insulin or oral medications to lower the blood sugar
  • Diet modifications to balance your meals and make healthier food choices
  • Exercise regularly to lower blood sugar

Living with diabetes requires learning to cope with some of the problems that go along with having the disease. Two of these problems are hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

Hyperglycemia (also called high blood sugar) can be a serious problem without treatment. It is very important to know the symptoms and treatment for hyperglycemia.

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar):

  • Blood glucose level greater than 180 mg/dL
  • Blurry vision
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Frequent urination
  • Headaches
  • High levels of sugar in the urine
  • Increased fatigue

complications of diabetes.png

Treatment for hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)

Exercising is often one way to lower your blood sugar level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. When exercise and dietary changes aren’t working, your doctor may change the amount of medication you take or possibly even the time of when you take your medication.

Hypoglycemia

hypoglycemia.jpg

Hypoglycemia (also called low blood glucose) is a condition in which the blood sugar is too low. It may be caused by too little food intake or too much insulin medication. Hypoglycemia can be a serious problem without treatment. It is very important to know the symptoms and treatment for hyperglycemia.

It is also important to check your blood sugar level if you feel different than normal. When your blood sugar is low you should treat the condition quickly.

 Treating hypoglycemia

If you are experiencing signs of low blood sugar, eat a snack that contains 15-20 grams of glucose or simple carbohydrates. Recheck your blood glucose after 15 minutes. If blood glucose level remains low, eat another snack and recheck. When you feel better, be sure to eat your regular meal if the reaction is near your meal time.

Examples of 15-20 grams of simple carbohydrates

  • glucose tablets
  • sugared (glucose) gel
  • ½ a cup of fruit juice/ ½ cup of regular soda
  • 2 tablespoons of raisins
  • 1 tablespoon sugar, honey, or corn syrup
  • 8 ounces of nonfat or 1% milk
  • hard candies, jellybeans, or gumdrops
  • two cheese crackers
  • peanut butter on two graham crackers

 Diabetes and Foot Problems

foot

People with diabetes can develop many different foot problems.

Neuropathy, also known as diabetic nerve damage, can cause a decrease sensation of pain, heat, and cold. Diabetes may make your feet dry which can cause your feet to peel and crack. Calluses may appear and form faster on the feet of people with diabetes. A person may develop ulcers on their feet due to poor fitting shoes. Diabetes causes blood vessels in your feet and legs to narrow and harden resulting in poor circulation.  This could result in pain in your lower legs and feet (intermittent claudication). Severe claudication could lead to amputation.

Foot care tips:

  • Check your feet every day.
  • Wash your feet every day. Dry them carefully, especially between the toes. And avoid applying lotion between the toes.
  • Trim your nails when needed. Cut toenails straight across, and file the edges with a nail file.
  • Wear shoes and socks at all times/special therapeutic shoes.

 

call doctor

When to notify the doctor or call 911 for Type 1 Diabetes                                          

You have symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), such as:

  • Blurred vision.
  • Trouble staying awake or trouble being woken up.
  • Fast, deep breathing.
  • Breath that smells fruity.
  • Belly pain, not feeling hungry, and vomiting.
  • Feeling confused.
  • You had passed out (lost consciousness), or if you suddenly become very sleepy or confused. (You may have very low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia.)

 

When to notify you doctor or call 911 for Type 2 Diabetes:

You have symptoms of hyperosmolar state, such as:

  • Blurred vision.
  • Trouble staying awake or trouble being woken up.
  • Fast, deep breathing.
  • Breath that smells fruity.
  • Belly pain, not feeling hungry, and vomiting.
  • Feeling confused.
  • Less common in type 2 diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which has symptoms similar to those of hyperosmolar state. But DKA is still possible and very dangerous.
  • You had passed out (lost consciousness), or if you suddenly become very sleepy or confused. (You may have very low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia.)

 

American Diabetes Association

http://www.diabetes.org/#sthash.XougrEvR.dpuf

Web MD

http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/tc/type-1-diabetes-when-to-call-a-doctor

Web MD

http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/tc/type-2-diabetes-when-to-call-a-doctor

 

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create a website or blog at WordPress.com

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: